The maternity test serves to check the direct descendance of queens. Control over queens is a challenging task. Mating flight, swarming, supersedure and other confusions can lead to unnoticed queen exchanges.
Apart from hybrid analyses, control of the ancestry of the drone colonies is nowadays one of the standard services of a breeding station. We check whether the queens of the drone colonies really descended from their mother.
Breeder queens are tested with much effort but can easily be confounded. The consequences can be dramatic for the breeding line. With the maternity test, uncertainties can be cleared.